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It also describes the configuration and implementation of replication along with different approaches. It also explains how to cope up with restrictions and limitations while partitioning. The reader gets an understanding of diverse ways to achieve high availability in MySQL 8. This chapter covers general factors that affect security, the security of core MySQL 8 files, access control, and securing the database system itself.

This chapter also includes details of security plugins. This chapter also describes use cases with a few performance results to validate. This will help you know various touch points to look out for when dealing with optimizing MySQL 8. It also explains various benchmarkings done for MySQL 8. To get the most out of this book We recommend that you get some basic knowledge of MySQL any version and SQL commands before you start reading this book.

This book also covers practical scenarios and command execution, so if possible, install a tool for easy execution of MySQL commands. You can download the code files by following these steps: 1. Enter the name of the book in the Search box and follow the onscreen instructions. Check them out! Conventions used There are a number of text conventions used throughout this book.

Here is an example: "It will download XJO. For example, words in menus or dialog boxes appear in the text like this. Tips and tricks appear like this. Errata: Although we have taken every care to ensure the accuracy of our content, mistakes do happen. If you have found a mistake in this book, we would be grateful if you would report this to us.

Piracy: If you come across any illegal copies of our works in any form on the Internet, we would be grateful if you would provide us with the location address or website name. Reviews Please leave a review.

Once you have read and used this book, why not leave a review on the site that you purchased it from? Potential readers can then see and use your unbiased opinion to make purchase decisions, we at Packt can understand what you think about our products, and our authors can see your feedback on their book. Thank you! This is the most common choice of web applications for a relational database.

In the current market, thousands of web-based applications rely on MySQL including giant industries such as Facebook, Twitter, and Wikipedia. We will discuss this in detail in the use cases of MySQL section later in the chapter. MySQL carries a valuable history with it. MySQL has continued to improve in order to become an enterprise-level database management system. MySQL 8 is expected to be a game-changer as today we are in the age of digitization.

MySQL 8 is all tuned to serve many new use cases that in prior versions were difficult to achieve. Analysis of all such structured, unstructured, or semi-structured ubiquitous data helps to discover hidden patterns, market trends, correlations, personal preferences. This is going to be exciting, let's get prepared. To make it simpler, SQL tells the database what to do and exactly what it needs. It can do various other operations such as allowing users to set permissions on tables, procedures, and views.

MySQL as a relational database management system Data in a relational database is stored in an organized format so that information can be retrieved easily. Data will be stored in different tables made up of rows and columns. However, the relationship can also be built between different tables that efficiently store huge data and effectively retrieve the selected data.

This provides database operations with tremendous speed and flexibility. As a relational database, MySQL has capabilities to establish relationships with different tables such as one to many, many to one, and one to one by providing primary keys, foreign keys, and indexes. It can also perform joins between tables to retrieve exact information such as inner joins and outer joins.

Open source means that you can view the source of MySQL and customize it based on your needs without any cost. You can download the source or binary files from its site and use them accordingly. It also has the Enterprise Edition as well with advanced features included.

Many enterprises still purchase the support contract from MySQL to get assistance on various issues. Reliability and scalability MySQL has great reliability to perform well without requiring extensive troubleshooting due to bottlenecks or other slowdowns. It also incorporates a number of performance enhanced mechanisms such as index support, load utilities, and memory caches.

Platform compatibility MySQL has great cross-platform availability that makes it more popular. We will be discussing various features throughout the book in detail as we progress. Structured database Structured databases are traditional databases that have been used by many enterprises for more than 40 years.

However, in the modern world, data volume is becoming bigger and bigger and a common need has taken its place--data analytics. Analytics is becoming difficult with structured databases as the volume and velocity of digital data grow faster by the day; we need to find a way to achieve such needs in an effective and efficient way. The most common database that is used as a structured database in the open source world is MySQL.

Many organizations use a structured database to store their data in an organized way with the formatted repository. Basically, data in a structured database has a fixed field, a predefined data length, and defines what kind of data is to be stored such as numbers, dates, time, addresses, currencies, and so on. In short, the structure is already defined before data gets inserted, which gives a clearer idea of what data can reside there.

The key advantage of using a structured database is that data being easily stored, queried, and analyzed. An unstructured database is the opposite of this; it has no identifiable internal structure. It can have a massive unorganized agglomerate or various objects.

Mainly, the source of structured data is machine-generated, which means information is generated from the machine and without human intervention, whereas unstructured data is human-generated data. Organizations use structured databases for data such as ATM transactions, airline reservations, inventory systems, and so on.

In the same way, some organizations use unstructured data such as emails, multimedia content, word processing documents, web pages, business documents, and so on. MySQL stores data in the database as a subdirectory. In each database, data is stored as tables. There is additional information that you can refer to for other purposes such as the number of rows, index length, and so on.

The storage engine is the way to handle SQL operations for different table types. Each storage engine has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is important to understand each storage engine's features and choose the most appropriate one for your tables to maximize the performance of the database. It was released with MySQL 5. MySQL 5. It also supports row-level locking, which helps with better concurrency and performance.

The maximum size of an InnoDB table can scale up to 64 TB, which should be good enough to serve many real-world use cases. It is generally used when you need to have primarily read operations with minimal transaction data. The maximum size of a.

Overview of memory A memory storage engine is generally known as a heap storage engine. It is used to access data extremely quickly. As it stores data in the RAM, all data is lost upon server restart. This table is basically used for temporary tables or the lookup table. This engine supports table-level locking, which limits high write concurrency.

Archive tables do not have any storage limitations. The archive storage engine is optimized for high insert operations and also supports row-level locking. These tables store data in a compressed and small format. Now, what is the use of this storage engine; why would anybody use it? This engine is useful for replication with large number of servers. Similarly, if you write data in the table, an external program can read it from the CSV file.

This storage engine is used for the exchange of data between software or applications. A CSV table does not support indexing and partitioning. Overview of merge This storage engine is also known as an. This storage engine merges a. For a merge table, all columns are listed in the same order. These tables are good for data warehousing environments. The table is used to manage log-related tables, generally. You can create different months of logs in separate. So using a merge table would allow you to split data into multiple.

Also, you cannot partition a merge table or any of a merge table's underlying. Overview of federated This storage engine allows you to create a single database on a multiple physical server. It opens a client connection to another server and executes queries against a table there, retrieving and sending rows as needed. It was originally marketed as a competitive feature that supported many enterprise-grade proprietary database servers, such as Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle, but that was always a stretch, to say the least.

Although it seemed to enable a lot of flexibility and neat tricks, it has proven to be a source of many problems and is disabled by default. The NDB cluster storage engine can be configured with a range of failover and load balancing options, but it is easiest to start with the storage engine at the cluster level. NDB cluster uses the NDB storage engine that contains a complete set of data, which is dependent only on other datasets available within the cluster.

In an NDB cluster, each part of the cluster is considered to be a node. It's time to move on to our next topic where we will look at delightful new features available in MySQL 8. It contains significant updates and fixes for problems that were much needed. You might be wondering why it's 8 after 5. Were the intermediate versions, that is, 6 and 7, miss out? Of course not!

Actually, 6. All information will be stored in the database, which removes the cost of performing heavy file operations. There were numerous issues with filesystem metadata storage such as the vulnerability of the filesystem, exorbitant file operations, difficult to handle crash recovery failures, or replication; it was also difficult to add new feature-related metadata. Now this upgrade has made it simple by storing information in a centralized manner, and will have improved performance as this data dictionary object can be cached in memory, similar to other database objects.

This data dictionary will have data that is needed for SQL query execution such as catalog information, character sets, collations, column types, indexes, database information, tables, stored procedures, functions and triggers, and so on. Roles In MySQL 8, the privileges module has been improved by introducing roles, which means a collection of permissions.

Now we can create roles with a number of privileges and assign them to multiple users. The problem with the previous version was that we were not able to define generic permissions for a group of users and each user has individual privileges. Suppose if there are 1, users already existing that have common privileges, and you want to remove the write permissions for these 1, users, what would you have done in the previous version?

You would have had to take the time-consuming approach of updating each user, right? That's a long, long task. Now with MySQL 8, it is easy to update any change in privileges. Roles will define all the required privileges and this role will be assigned to those 1, users. We just need to make any privilege changes in the role and all users will automatically inherit the respective privileges.

Roles can be created, deleted, grant or revoke permission, grant or revoke from the user account, and can specify the default role within the current session. Previously, it was stored in the memory, which was quite difficult to manage during server restarts or server crashes. However, now the auto-increment counter value is written into the redo log whenever the value gets changed and, on each checkpoint, it will be saved in the system table, which makes it persistent across the server restart.

With the previous version, update of the auto-increment value may have caused duplicate entry errors. Suppose if you updated the value of auto-increment in the middle of the sequence with a larger than the current maximum value, but then subsequent insert operations could not identify the unused values, which could cause a duplicate entry issue. This has been prevented by persisting the auto-increment value, hence subsequent insert operations can get the new value and allocate it properly.

This has been changed, as the newer version has the capability to persist its value across the server restart. Invisible indexes MySQL 8 provides you with a feature to make indexes invisible. These kinds of indexes cannot be used by the optimizer. In case you want to test the query performance without indexes, using this feature you can do so by making them invisible rather than dropping and re-adding an index. This is a handy feature when indexing is supposed to be dropped and recreated on huge datasets.

All indexes are visible by default. To improve performance, MySQL 8 has optimized this and scanned descending indexes in forward order, which has drastically improved performance. It also brings multiple column indexes for the optimizer when the most efficient scan order has ascending order for some columns, and descending order for other columns.

SRS helps assign coordinates to a location and establishes relationships between sets of such coordinates. In short, it had maximum range up to 64 bits to perform operations. This typecasting was not feasible for data types larger than 64 bits as it would truncate the actual value, which resulted in inaccuracy. This makes it possible to perform bit-wise operations on larger than bit data. No more typecasting needed! This allows the taking of arguments and returning results larger than 64 bits.

Now, multiple key value pairs can be fetched in a single memcached query. Frequent communication traffic has also been minimized as we can get multiple data in a single shot. It simplifies range searches by specifying a particular range and retrieves values within this range.

It actually automatically detects the memory allocated to the virtual server and appropriately set MySQL 8 without any need to change configuration files. These would be very handy features considering the adoption of virtualization and cloud is there. In fact with this configuration, you might not even need to get shell access of server to edit the configuration files.

Resource management MySQL 8 has come up with a wonderful resource management feature that will allow you to allocate resource to threads running on a server, which would be executed based on the resources configured for the group. Currently, CPU time is a resource that can be configured for a group. With this, you can tweak your workloads with virtual resource management within MySQL itself.

MySQL will identify on startup numbers of virtual CPUs available and after that users with appropriate privileges can map the virtual CPUs with resource group and align thread management to these groups. We expect to see more features by the time MySQL 8 is available for general use.

Let us now look at benefits of using MySQL 8. MySQL provides numerous advantages as the first choice in this competitive market. It has various powerful features available that make it a more comprehensive database. Let's now go through some benefits of using MySQL.

Security The first thing that comes to mind is securing data because nowadays data has become precious and can impact business continuity if legal obligations are not met; in fact, it can be so bad that it can close down your business in no time. MySQL is the most secure and reliable database management system used by many well-known enterprises such as Facebook, Twitter, and Wikipedia.

It really provides a good security layer that protects sensitive information from intruders. MySQL gives access control management so that granting and revoking required access from the user is easy. Roles can also be defined with a list of permissions that can be granted or revoked for the user.

All user passwords are stored in an encrypted format using plugin-specific algorithms. Scalability Day by day, the mountain of data is growing because of extensive use of technology in numerous ways. Because of this, load average is going through the roof. In some cases, it is unpredictable that data cannot exceed up to some limit or number of users will not go out of bounds.

Scalable databases would be a preferable solution so that, at any point, we can meet unexpected demands to scale. MySQL is a rewarding database system for its scalability, which can scale horizontally and vertically; in terms of data, spreading database and load of application queries across multiple MySQL servers is quite feasible. It is pretty easy to add horsepower to the MySQL cluster to handle the load. You can view the source and make the changes accordingly and use it in your own way.

You can also distribute an extended version of MySQL, but you will need to have a license for this. High performance MySQL gives high-speed transaction processing with optimal speed. It can cache the results, which boosts read performance. Replication and clustering make the system scalable for more concurrency and manages the heavy workload. To enhance performance, MySQL 8 has included indexes in performance schema to speed up data retrieval. High availability Today, in the world of competitive marketing, an organization's key point is to have their system up and running.

Any failure or downtime directly impacts business and revenue; hence, high availability is a factor that cannot be overlooked. MySQL is quite reliable and has constant availability using cluster and replication configurations. Cluster servers instantly handle failures and manage the failover part to keep your system available almost all the time.

If one server gets down, it will redirect the user's request to another node and perform the requested operation. We prefer MySQL 8 on a Linux operating system as that has been a common use case across many organizations. Linux provides various ways to install the MySQL server, as follows: Let us walk through a few areas of MySQL 8 now. Number of tables or databases The number of databases or tables are not a limitation for MySQL 8; however, the operating system file limit can be a limitation for MySQL 8.

Table size You may hit maximum table size limit, which is not restricted from MySQL 8; however, it may be because of operating system filesystem limits. It is also applicable to the tables that are referenced in view definition.

Joins that are part of subqueries and views are also considered to be part of the limitation. Ports: In case you have a high number of concurrency you might come across Windows platform limitation of having ports available for client connections in total. Case-insensitivity: The Windows platform doesn't have case sensitivity, which is why tables and databases need to be deliberately managed for case-insensitivity.

Pipes: ], generally referred as pipe signs, they are not fully supported in Windows. You might come across them in a few scenarios while doing database administration activities. It might vary based on a few other factors for columns count limit, as stated in the following section. In a case the [email protected] integer runs out of the value; the following insert operations would show us duplicate-key errors.

Foreign keys that are cascaded cannot activate triggers. Manually created directories for databases are not supported by MySQL 8. It is suggested to use smaller chunks of data that cannot be replicated in around five seconds to group members to avoid failures. Cluster from a group: If you try to create clusters from an existing group replication setup it will result in an error as the instance would already be part of a replication group. This is noticed currently only in MySQL's wizard mode only; an alternative solution for the issue is to disable wizard mode.

Serializable isolation level: Serializable isolation level is not supported when multi-primary groups are used, which is the default configuration. Replication checksum: Currently MySQL design limitations create restrictions of having replication event checksums. Limitations of partitioning We will be discussing limitations of partitioning in this section. Tables The following are a few specific areas that show us limitations of partitioning on tables: The maximum number of partitions supported by MySQL 8 for a table is This limit also considers sub-partitions.

Fulltext index and search is not supported on partitioned tables. Tables that are temporary cannot be partitioned. Log tables can't be partitioned. The data type of partition keys should be an integer column or can be an expression to an integer. We have so far discussed overview, features, benefits, and a few limitations of MySQL. Let us now walk through the wonderful use cases of MySQL. The importance of MySQL doesn't depend only on how much data you have, it's rather what you are going to do with the data.

Data can be sourced and analyzed from unpredictable sources and can be used to address many things. Though it's not an extensive list of industries where MySQL has been playing a prominent role in business decisions, let's now discuss a few of the industries. At the end of the day, what matters is how your social media-related efforts contribute to the business.

On top of MySQL where petabytes of data was used to serve likes, shares, and comments. Though currently MySQL is still used largely for other common applications. Government The era of MySQL has been playing a significant role in government too; government bodies have been using MySQL extensively because of splendid return on investments and promoting open source. In fact, the government sector is carrying out a huge number of implementations of MySQL worldwide. There are various activities such as weather conditions, flight plans, fuel efficiency, maintenance of flights, and many more that are being tracked with the help of MySQL as the database.

It's a no-brainer that it needs to run 24x7 with full redundancy; MySQL was able to achieve this serving US Navy aircraft across the globe. Vitess helps to do lots of optimization and acts as a proxy to serve each database request using MySQL. Most of the time, fraud detection takes place a long time after the fraud has occurred, when you might have already suffered loss. The next steps would be obviously to minimize the impact of fraud and improve areas that could help you prevent this from being repeated.

Many companies who are into any type of transaction processing or claims use fraud detection techniques extensively. MySQL helps to analyze transactions, claims, and so on in real time, along with trends or anomalous behavior to prevent fraudulent activities. PayPal has more than million active users, which is distributed to US, Japanese, and European data centers. High-availability for such use cases is a key criteria along with performance, which MySQL has been able to deliver as expected.

Netflix has billions of rows of data concurrently updated and of consisting data since its inception two decades ago. Compliance was one of the key factors along with migration from Oracle with minimal downtime; both of these were achieved with MySQL and has been expanding tremendously every other day. Uber had been growing enormously worldwide, and scalability, high-availability, and return on investments were a few of the important criteria to be worked upon. Uber uses MySQL as its primary database for its known private car transportation service.

Uber heavily uses schema less database architecture as its backend as a layer on MySQL. There are many real-world MySQL use cases that have changed humanity, technology, predictions, health, science and research, law and order, sports, e-commerce, power and energy, financial trading, robotics, and many more. MySQL is an integral part of our daily routine, which is not evident all the time, but yes, it plays a significant role in what we do in many ways.

We understood MySQL 8's current limitations and restrictions, which is important for us when performing the implementations. Finally, we glanced through a few impressive use cases from the real world that play prominent roles in our daily routine, and they all use MySQL as their database. In the next chapter, we will learn detailed steps for installing MySQL 8 on different platforms.

The chapter also covers methods to upgrade or downgrade from MySQL 8, and they will all be discussed in detail. For any programming platform, the most important and monotonous task is to set up the environment with the necessary software tools. This chapter explains MySQL 8's installation steps in detail with the necessary prerequisites. Separate installation steps are provided to set up MySQL 8 on various platforms.

The chapter also covers methods to upgrade to or downgrade from MySQL 8. It also explains the post-installation steps required for setup. This chapter provides information on how to upgrade or downgrade from MySQL 8. The MySQL 8 release is managed in two ways: Development release: This has the newest feature but is not recommended for use in production General release: This is a stable release and users can use it for release in production also Naming conventions are followed in each release of MySQL 8, which indicates its status.

Each release name consists of three digits and an optional suffix. For example, mysql. The numbers are interpreted as follow: The first number 8 indicates a major version of the release. The second number 1 indicates a minor version of the release. A combination of major and minor numbers describes the series of the release.

The third number 2 indicates the version within the release series. It is incremented on each bug fix release. The most recent version of the release is the most preferable for use. The suffix given in the example indicates the stability of the MySQL 8 release. Release Candidate rc : A new feature might get released in this version but the aim is to fix bugs within the previously released features. This release is stable and passed through earlier stages.

It is reliable and suitable for use in production. Now, after deciding the MySQL 8 version for the installation, it's time to select the distribution format. The binary distribution is recommended for general-purpose use. It is available in native formats for many platforms. When you reach the download page, you can see the version selection tab at the bottom side of the page, where two tabs are displayed: Generally Available GA release Development release Based on the previous section, select the suitable version from the list and click on the Download button.

Verifying the package integrity This is a stage where the downloaded package is available and ready for the installation. It's an optional step, but we recommend it to avoid errors during the installation process. After downloading MySQL 8, we just have to make sure that the checksum of the downloaded file matches with the checksum provided on the download page.

There are many tools available for different operating systems to compare checksums. Here, we are providing an example of MD5 checksums using the command line and using one graphical tool, named winMD5Sum, for the Windows operating system. Perform the following steps for the command line execution: 1. It will download XJO. After successful installation, open the winMD5Sum tool.

This opens one dialog box where you have to select the downloaded. Click on the calculate button. This will calculate the MD5 checksum of the downloaded file. Once the build key is downloaded, you have to perform the following steps: 1.

Import the build key 2. Both the files must be placed under one common storage location. The most common approach is to use an installer, which installs and configures MySQL 8 on your local system. MySQL 8 either runs as a standard application or runs as a Windows service. Use it, as the service enables users to control and measure operations using the Windows service management tool. An installer is also useful for upgrading products into other versions.

Source distribution: As the name implies, this contains all the source code along with all the supported files. The Visual Studio compiler is required to make it executable. Binary distribution: This distribution is available in ZIP file format. It contains all the required files except the installer. The user has to unpack the file into a selected directory.

So, there is a possibility that antivirus software will consider those files as spam. This will also impact performance. Antivirus software provides configurations to exclude some of the directories, so it is recommended to exclude the MySQL 8 data directory and temp directory. For these larger tables, the user has to define the. However, we have a choice for the directory selection at the time of installation.

Whatever the location of the installation, the subdirectory structure after installation remains same. Choosing the right installation package There are multiple options available for package formats while installing MySQL 8 on Windows. MySQL provides a facility to debug the installation process using program database pdb files. These files are available in a ZIP distribution: The installer package: This is a wizard-based process and is easy to use.

The installer package is available for bits only but can install MySQL 8 on the 64bit configuration also. The installer package is available in two different formats: Web Community: As the name implies, this is available for web installation. It means the Internet is required for the installation using the web community.

Its size is approx 19 MB. Its name is defined as MySQL-installer-community by the appending version. Community: This package format is used for offline installation. Its size is approx MB. Its name is defined as MySQL-installer-webcommunity by the appending version. The Noinstall Archives: This is a manual installation process that contains files for the incomplete installation package.

As it is a manual process, no GUI is available. The user has to manually install and configure MySQL 8 and other products if required. Unlike the installer, it provides two different files for bit and bit configuration in a ZIP format. As described in previous section, both Web Community and Community package formats are available for the installer. Once we start the installer in our host machine it will detect already installed MySQL products and consider them in a list of products to be managed.

The following are the steps that are required in the initial setup of the installer: 1. MySQL installer licensing and support authentication: This is the step where the user must accept the license agreement before starting the MySQL 8 installation. After accepting the terms, the user is allowed to add, update, or remove MySQL products.

In the Commercial Edition, credentials are required to unbundle products and must match with the user's Oracle account in the support site. The installer also provides the option of a predefined setup, which contains a set of MySQL products. So, you have the flexibility of selecting one setup type as per your requirements.

The following are some setups available in the installer. Client only: This is the same as the developer default setup type, except it does not contain the MySQL 8 server or any client-specific package added to it.

Custom: This option installs only those products that are selected by the user from the catalog. Here, the user has the freedom to choose only the required products, rather than installing the complete bundle of products. Path conflicts: When the hosting system already contains a MySQL product and the user is trying to install a different version of that MySQL product on the same path, then the installer will show a path conflict error in the wizard.

The installer enables the user to take action on the path conflict in the following ways: Choose a different location using the Browse button from the wizard Choose a different setup type or version by custom selection Overwrite the existing folder by moving on to the next step Cancel the wizard steps, delete existing products, and start the installer again 9.

During the initial setup, the installer will check the availability of the required software and prompt the user to update the host in case of missing requirements. Product installation: The installer manages the status of each product by Ready Install Installing Complete. Product configuration: This phase uses a step-by-step configuration process for products. The installer will change the status from Ready Configure.

Installation complete: This finalizes the installation and the user can start using the application after the installation. InnoDB cluster sandbox test setup for testing only : This is also known as the sandbox cluster. Cluster nodes run on different ports. After configuration, click on the Summary tab to get the port details of each cluster. File contents will be decided as per the selected options of the installation process.

The required default installation and data paths of the MySQL 8 server will be provided by the installer. The installer will create some user accounts with roles and permissions for MySQL 8 server. For example, you can configure the separate path for an error log, show a query log, and much more. Development: By considering the host as a personal workstation, it configures MySQL 8 to use the minimum amount of memory.

Server: As servers, some other applications are also running on the machine, so it will configure a medium amount of memory. Users are allowed to define the port number along with the firewall setting for the port on the network access.

Named pipe: This option allows you to define the pipeline name for the connection. Advanced configuration: This configuration enables additional logging features which will manage logs in individual files. Users are allowed to configure paths for individual files. For example, configuring a custom path for a binary log. Check the Enable Enterprise Firewall option to enable the firewall.

Accounts and roles: Accounts and roles are used to manage access rights for the users. During the installation process, the MySQL installer allows you to set root account passwords and user accounts. Root account password: It is required to enter root password during the installation process.

The installer will check the password strength and give a warning if there is a violation of a predefined policy. Predefined roles have their own privileges. Windows service: The MySQL 8 service can be configured in the following two ways: Configure as a Window service: This is the default option selected during the installation process.

It further provides two options: Start service on system startup: This option is selected by default and will start the MySQL 8 service automatically at system startup. By default, the system account is selected where the service is considered as network service. With a custom user, it first sets privileges for the user by using the blocal security policyc in Microsoft Windows.

Configure as an executable program: This deselects the Windows Service option during the installation process. Plugins and extensions: This step is available for a new installation. Advance options: To enable this option, select the Show advance configuration check box in the Type and Networking step.

This option enables the user to define a specific path for log files, such as an error log, a general log, a slow query log, and bin log. The product catalog is a component where a list of all the released MySQL products is available, which support Microsoft Windows. The MySQL installer updates the catalog on a daily basis and the option is also available for the manual update of the catalog. The product catalog performs the following actions to manage the list: Populate the available products list on a regular basis Check for the product's update as installed in the host The product catalog lists all the products that are available in the development, general, or any minor release.

The following are the ways to manage products using the dashboard: The MySQL installer provides a configuration to update the catalog at specific time intervals. The user can enable or disable automatic updates by the configuration. The dashboard shows a special icon at the product level when its new version is available.

The user can manage products with the following actions: Add: Use to download and install one or more products. Modify: Use to add or remove features in installed products. Upgrade: Use to upgrade products. Make sure the checkbox is selected at the product level for upgrading in the upgradeable products pane. Remove: Use to uninstall products from the populated list.

The dashboard provides the reconfiguration feature, where the user can change already configured options and values. The Do not update at this time checkbox is available to check current changes related to products without downloading. To perform this functionality, select the checkbox and click on the catalog link. This functionality is installed by default during the initial installation of the MySQL installer. There are some commands available to manage MySQL products.

To see the details of these commands, execute the IFMQ command. Extract install archive: In this step, select a specific directory for the extraction of the installed MySQL 8 archive. At the time of the installation process, make sure the logged in user has administrative rights. Create option file: The option file is the place where the user can configure commands related to MySQL 8. This file is referred to by MySQL 8 on every server startup.

Path names in options file are specified using forward slashes rather than backslashes. If you want to use backslashes then double them. As mentioned, the option file is the same as a normal text file; the user can modify it using any text editor. Consider an example where the MySQL 8 installation directory and data directory are at different locations.

This process will be covered in the later section on post-installation. But the default option is in normal mode because the pipes option has a performance impact. It slows down the overall performance. It can be started using the command line or as a Windows service.

To start it using the command line, execute the following command. The last two lines in Command Prompt are displayed as follows. They indicate that the MySQL 8 service has started and is ready for the server-client request: mysqld: ready for connections Version: '8. After first starting the MySQL 8 server, the user has to set it manually. Steps to set the password are described in detail under the post-installation section.

If the password was set on the root user of the MySQL 8 server then execute the command with the -p option and provide a password for successful execution. Set the environment variable for MySQL 8. As mentioned in the preceding section, we have written the command with the complete path of the MySQL 8 server installation.

To simplify this command, we have to define the environment variable for MySQL 8 in Microsoft Windows by performing the following steps in Windows 10 : 1. Right click on My Compute and select Properties: 1. Click on Advance system settings. Click on the Environment Variables button available at the right bottom side.

Press the OK button in all the related dialog boxes to apply this change in Windows. There is no need to start the MySQL 8 service explicitly in this case. The user can choose any of the distributions for his requirement. Select the MySQL package for your installation. After installation, execute the second command to check whether the :VN repository has properly installed. Yum allows only one enabled sub-repository for one release at a time; if multiple release series are enabled then only the latest series will be selected by the Yum repository.

It is the recommended way of installation for MySQL 8. The The RPM package follows the same steps as discussed in the Yum repository installation. Download the required tar package from the MySQL site. During this process, the system will ask for the root user password of the MySQL 8 installation. Data directory initialization In previous sections, we have seen different methods of MySQL 8 installation. Some of the methods will automatically create a data directory for MySQL 8.

For generic binary distribution and source distribution, data directory creation is a must. These two commands can be used by the user, regardless of the platform for the data directory initialization. Initializing is a way in which random initial root passwords will be generated. It checks the existence of the data directory 2. The MySQL 8 server creates a system database and its table, grant tables, help tables, and time zone tables 3. The SPPU! But with the The initial root account may or may not have a password.

To assign a password at the initial stage, use either of the following procedures: If the root account has a random password: 1. Look in the server log files to get an auto-generated password. Connect with the MySQL 8 server without a password: mysql -u root 2. During the execution of the preceding commands, some common problems may arrive, so here we will present the following troubleshooting suggestions: 1.

Check into the MPH files to find the exact error that occurred during the service startup. By reading the last few lines of the file, you can identify the problem that occurred during the last command executed.

The following errors will indicate that the required ports and sockets are not available for use, meaning that they are in use with other programs. To identify this, track all the problems by disabling the service. If the parameters are not define into the file then MySQL 8 will consider the default parameters, so refer to all the available parameters provided by MySQL 8 before using it. Verify that the EBUB directory path and permission are properly defined or not. This directory is used as the current directory for MySQL 8.

For permission, you will get an Error code 13, which indicates the permission denied error. To overcome this issue, change the permission of the required files and folder. Another way is to log in with the root user, but this is not possible in all the scenarios, so the first approach is recommended to overcome the permission issue.

So, the up-gradation process will move the file-based structure into the data dictionary structure. For non-GA versions of 5. Before starting the up-gradation process, the following points need to be understood. Upgrading methods Two methods are in use for up-gradation that are differentiated by their implementation method.

Let us discuss these methods in detail. Before starting, make sure the old server has stop and after replacing the package, restart the MySQL 8 server on the existing data directory with the mySQL upgrade. Shut down the old MySQL version, using the following command: mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown 4.

It is the up-gradation process where the user will replace the old package with the new MySQL 8 package. On the server startup, it will check for EBUB dictionary tables. If they are not present then the server creates tables in the EBUB directory, and populates metadata and processes with its normal startup sequence. If this step fails then server will revert all the changes. After up-gradation, shut down and restart the server to check whether all the changes have been applied or not.

Perform the following steps to apply the logical up-gradation: 1. Shut down the old MySQL server. Install the new version of MySQL 8. Load the SQL dump file into the new. Z database: mysql -u root -p --force 7. Execute the following command to check there is no absolute datatypes or function: mysqlcheck -u root -p--all-databases--check-upgrade [ 63 ] Installing and Upgrading MySQL 8 Chapter 2 2.

Make sure MySQL 5. Within the same series where a version skip is supported means you can downgrade from MySQL 8. First, we will explain some basic points that need to be understood before starting downgrading. Restarting the old version means MySQL 5. This downgrade method is supported between GA versions within the same series. Perform the following steps for an in-place downgrade: 1.

Shut down the newer version of MySQL 8. Position the older version of MySQL in place of the newer version binaries or package. Shut down and restart the MySQL server again to check if all the changes have been applied or not. Install the new version of MySQL 8 with the new database and load the old version dump into the new database. This downgrade is also supported within the same GA release series and for the release level.

MySQL 8. Shut down the MySQL server, as shown here: mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown 3. Load the dump into the older MySQL sever, as shown here: mysql -u root -p --force 6. So, before downgrading to MySQL 5. So, before downgrading, change the storage engine of these tables by executing the following command. Removing the redo logs is recommended for in-place downgrading.

Summary To choose the proper software with its version for development is an important phase, right? In this chapter, we understood how to select the proper version of MySQL 8 by understanding its version pattern. We also learned the execution steps of MySQL 8 installation using the installer and command line in Microsoft Windows.

Post-installation describes the basic configuration to start with MySQL 8. Finally, we explained how to upgrade and downgrade from MySQL 8 with execution steps. In the next chapter, we will learn about various programs and utilities available for MySQL 8. It mainly focuses on how to use these programs for MySQL 8 along with command-line executions. We also learned how to migrate and upgrade to MySQL 8. The reader will also get to know how to use programs and utilities in MySQL 8.

The reader will learn about using command-line programs used in MySQL 8. The reader will learn the syntax for the program and how they are being used with specific options to perform specific operations. The following is a summary of the topics covered in this chapter. A brief overview of these programs is covered in this section. Upcoming sections will cover a detailed description for each of them and the description will have its own invocation syntax and options to perform the operation.

Most of the MySQL distribution will have all these programs, apart from those that are platform-specific; for example, server startup script not used in Windows. RPM Red-hat package manager distributions are very specialized and are part of the exceptions to all programs available in distributions. What is specialized about RPM distributions? Well, they have different programs for different operations; for example, one program will be executed for the server, a second program will be executed for the client, and so on.

If it looks like one or more programs is missing in your installation, then don't worry. It might be the case that the distribution which you have does not include all the programs and you need to install an additional package. The description on the first few lines will have specific version information about MySQL that is installed along with operating system and license information.

This was just a glimpse of what we will be looking at: program details with options, their usages and default options, overriding default option values on various command-line programs, client programs, administrative programs, and so on. For detailed information about executing programs and specifying program options in the command line see the MySQL 8 command line programs section, which will be followed by a list of installations, client and server start up, and other utility programs.

It works with several scripts to help with starting and stopping the server. All the other client programs interact with the database using this server program. It must be started and be running at all times except for maintenance. It starts system services at particular run levels. It calls [email protected] to start the MySQL server.

It checks for any incompatibility and makes repairs if it is necessary. It also updates the grant tables with any changes in new versions of MySQL. Client programs The client programs are among the programs that are commonly used to connect to the MySQL database and perform different query operations: NZTRM: This is the most commonly used program.

It is an interactive command- line tool for executing SQL statements directly or using a file in batch mode. Detailed information is followed in the next MySQL 8 command line programs section. The program is also used to retrieve information from the server, such as version, process, and status.

It is commonly known as a database back up program. It is also commonly known as the data import program. The program mimics multiple clients accessing the server. In the event of a server crash, a binary log file executed statements can be big help. The use of. Cost-Effective The community edition of MySQL is free of cost, and the commercial edition has a licensing fee, which is cost-effective compared to other products available in the market.

MySQL Workbench adheres to all objects such as tables, views, stored procedures, triggers, etc. It has utilities for viewing data and exporting it. Multiple queries can be run at a time, and the result is automatically displayed. It also saves the queries in the history panel for previewing and running it later on. Open the MySQL website on a browser. Select the Downloads option. Choose the desired installer and click on download. After it downloads the installer, open it.

It will ask for permission; when it does, click Yes. The installer will then open. Now, it will ask to choose the setup type, here, select Custom. Click on Next. Click on the Next button. Once the product is ready to configure, click on Next. Under Type and Networking, go with the default settings and select Next.

For authentication, use the recommended strong password encryption. Go for the default windows service settings and under apply configuration, click on execute. Once the configuration is complete, click on finish.

Complete the installation. Check the databases that are present in MySQL using the following command: Show Databases; In the result grid, you can see the list of databases that are already present.

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