A table is made up of columns (or fields) and rows (records). The SQL keywords and commands are NOT case-sensitive. For clarity, they are shown in uppercase. születés Kérem törlés MySQL:: MySQL Workbench Manual:: SQL Data. It documents both MySQL Workbench Commercial and MySQL New in MySQL Workbench Importing a Data Definition SQL Script. ULTRAVNC SCREEN RECORDER VS CAMSTUDIO VIRUS
Tool-specific Toolbar Items Model Editor EER Diagrams The Physical Schemata Schema Privileges The Model Navigator Palette The Catalog and Layers Palettes The Properties and History Palettes EER Diagram Editor The Vertical Toolbar Working with Models Creating Tables Creating Foreign Key Relationships Creating Views Creating Routines and Routine Groups Creating Layers Creating Notes Creating Text Objects Creating Images Reverse Engineering Forward Engineering Modeling Tutorials Using the Default Schema Basic Modeling Documenting the sakila Database Printing Options General Validation Supported Template Markers Creating a custom template Server Administration Server Instances Creating and Managing Server Instances Server Administration and Configuration Startup Tab Configuration tab Accounts tab Connections tab Variables tab Data Dump tab Logs tab The Workbench Scripting Shell Exploring the Workbench Scripting Shell The Shell The Globals, Modules, and Classes Tabs Using the GRT Shell Accessing Plugins Keyboard Shortcuts Changes in Release 5.
Getting Started Tutorial - Home Screen Getting Started Tutorial - New Schema Getting Started Tutorial - Columns Getting Started Tutorial - Manage Connections Getting Started Tutorial - Review Script Getting Started Tutorial - Edit Data Getting Started Tutorial - Results The Home screen The Preferences Dialog Box Manage DB Connections - Dialog SQL Editor - Toolbar The Find Window Roles and Privileges Role Editor The Table Editor The Columns Tab The Indexes Tab The Relationship Connector The Split Connector The Layer Object Reverse Engineer Database Wizard Connect to DBMS Select Schemata Fetch Object Info Select Objects Show Filter Message Log SQL Export Options Review Generated Script Catalog Validation Select Objects to Forward Engineer Review Script Set parameters for connecting to a DBMS Model and Database Differences Controlling Synchronization Direction Update Model Button Ignore Button Update Source Button Click arrows to change direction of synchronization Catalog Sources Catalog Diff Report Adding Tables to the Canvas The Default Schema Adding an EER Diagram The sakila EER Diagram Manage Server Instances Dialog Server Instances Wizard Administrator - Startup tab Administrator - Configuration tab Administrator - Accounts tab Administrator - Connections tab Administrator - Variables tab Administrator - Export to Disk Administrator - Import from Disk Administrator - Advanced Options Administrator - Logs tab The Workbench Scripting Shell Panels SQL Development - Allows you to create and manage connections to database servers.
This functionality replaces that previously provided by the Query Browser stand-alone application. Data Modeling - Allows you to create models of your database schema graphically, reverse and forward engineer between a schema and a live database, and edit all aspects of your database using the comprehensive Table Editor. Server Administration - Allows you to create and administer server instances. This functionality replaces that previously provided by the MySQL Administrator stand-alone application.
MySQL Workbench is available in two editions. The Community Edition and the Standard Edition. The Community Edition is available free of charge. The Standard Edition provides additional Enterprise features, such as database documentation generation, at a low cost. All editions of MySQL Workbench are based on the Community Edition and all future improvements to the base framework and feature set will be included in this version. The Community Edition is a full feature product that puts a powerful database management tool into the hands of the MySQL community.
The Standard Edition The Standard Edition is a commercial extension that builds on top of the OSS Edition and adds modules and plugins, allowing for an optimized work flow. Source code distributions are also available as a tar. The following sections explain the installation process for each of these platforms.
The Microsoft. NET 3. Cairo 1. Note On start up, the application checks the OpenGL version and selects between software and hardware rendering. Generally, there are two ways to launch MySQL Workbench from the command line and from the graphical user interface of the host operating system.
Using the command-line launching facility is useful when you want to customize some aspects of the way MySQL Workbench operates. Launching MySQL Workbench for each of the supported platforms is described in the following sections. The MSI package bears the name mysql-workbench-version-win If you find that the MySQL Installation Wiz- ard is lacking some feature important to you, or if you discover a bug, please report it in our bugs database.
That file is called mysql-workbench-version-win Using a ZIP utility, unpack it to the directory of your choice. You may also want to create a shortcut on your desktop or the quick launch bar. You can place the resulting direct- ory anywhere on you system. You do not need to install or configure the application before using it. C by Sun Microsystems. Print this output -open filename..
Open the given filename at startup -nologo Do not display the splash screen -verbose -v Print verbose output in the GRT Shell -version Print the version information -grtversion Print the GRT version information -swrendering Force the canvas to use software rendering instead of OpenGL -log Instruction to save messages other debug info to file The MySQL Workbench version number is displayed followed by a usage message and then the options.
Use the -swrendering op- tion if your video card does not support OpenGL 1. The -grtversion can be used to display the GRT shell version number. The other options are self-explanatory. Note When using command-line options that display output to a console window, namely -help and -version, be sure that you pipe the output through the more command otherwise nothing will be displayed. Note If you installed any additional modules within the modules directory and you want to keep them, make sure you copy those modules to a different directory before deleting the MySQL Workbench directory.
The procedure for installing on Linux depends on which Linux distribution you are using. Note You may be warned that certain libraries are not available, depending on what you already have installed. The file is named mysql-workbench-oss-ver- sion-osx Double-click the downloaded file. You will be presented with the installation screen: Figure 3. MySQL Workbench is now installed.
The application is uninstalled. If you only have access to a remote MySQL server you will need to enter appropriate connection parameters when required. You also need a basic understanding of MySQL concepts. Creating a Model In this section you will learn how to create a new database model, create a table, create an EER Diagram of your model, and then for- ward engineer your model to the live database server.
A model can contain multiple schemata. Note that when you create a new model, it contains the mydb schema by default. You can change the name of this schema to serve your own purposes, or simply delete it. Figure 4. Getting Started Tutorial - Home Screen 2. This will create a new schema and display a tabsheet for the schema.
Ensure that this change is reflected on the Physical Schemata tab. Now you are ready to add a table to your schema. If at this stage you re- ceive a message dialog asking to rename all schema occurrences, you can click YES to apply your name change. Getting Started Tutorial - New Schema 3. Select a datatype of INT.
You will then make this column have the following properties: primary key, not null, autoincrement. Now you can obtain a visual representation of this schema so far. The EER Diagram will be created and displayed. Note that the EER Diagram is automatically up- dated to reflect this change. At this point you can save your model. In this case you have not yet saved this file so you will be prompted to enter a model file name. Click SAVE to save the model.
You can synchronize your model with the live database server. This allows us to identify which server this connection corresponds to, although it is possible to create multiple connections to the same server. Enter the username for the account you will use to connect to the server. You can option- ally ignore this step, and you will be prompted for this password whenever MySQL Workbench connects to the server.
You are now ready to forward engineer your model to the live server. The first page of the wizard is the Catalog Validation page. If everything is in order the wizard will report that validaton finished successfully. Click NEXT to continue. The Options page of the wizard shows various advanced options.
For this tutorial you can ignore these and simply click NEXT. On the next page you can select the object you want to export to the live server. In this case we only have a table, so no other ob- jects need to be selected. Click NEXT. The next screen, Review SQL Script, displays the script that will be run on the live server to create your schema. Review the script to make sure that you understand the operations that will be carried out. Ensure that your model is saved. Adding Data to Your Database In the previous section you created a model, schema, and table.
You also forward engineered your model to the live server. In this sec- tion you will see how you can use MySQL Workbench to add data into your database on the live server. Select the table to edit, movies. You will see a data grid. This is where you can enter the data for your database.
A list of SQL statements will be displayed. Confirm that you understand the operations to be carried out. View the data grid again and observe that the autoincrement values have been generated. Now you will check that the data really has been applied to the live server.
Click on the Home screen tab. Click OK. A new SQL Editor tab will be displayed. MySQL Workbench 5. Note that 5. These can be seen in the following screenshot: Figure 5. The Home screen 5. You can read the developer blogs, find out what's new in the release, access the forums, check for updates and file a bug report. Workspace The Workspace is designed to allow you to quickly get to the task you would like to carry out.
For convenience it is divided into three main areas, in alignment with MySQL Workbench functionality: 1. SQL Development 2. Data Modelling 3. You will not be able to manually reduce the size of the application to less than this resolution. For an unlimited num- ber of undos set the value to 0. Currently there is a choice between Lua and Python. The Administrator Tab Allows you to set paths to the mysqldump tool, and the mysql tool. If these are left blank the defaults will be used.
This panel also al- lows you to set the directory for export dump files. The query editor proper- ties that can be set include row limits, whether to display Metadata schemata, field value lengths and DBMS keep-alive interval. There are also options allowing you to enable the Data Changes Commit Wizard, and whether to continue or not should an error occur while executing SQL code.
Choose Ask and whenever you delete an object you will be asked whether you wish to remove the object from an EER diagram only or also from the catalog. The Keep Database Object in Catalog is the safest option. You also have the option of deleting the object from both the EER diagram and the catalog. Note If you choose the Ask option a confirmation dialog box will only open when you are deleting an object from an EER Dia- gram.
When deleting in the MySQL Model view there is no confirmation dialog window and the delete action always re- moves the object from the catalog. There are a variety of ways of deleting an object from an EER canvas; using the eraser tool, choosing a pop-up menu option, using the delete key, and by choosing the delete option under the EDIT menu.
Use the model tab to set the default value for various object names and the primary key data type. Likewise with the default primary key data type, and column name and column type. The remaining items are the default names used when using the relationship tools on an EER diagram.
Items enclosed by percentage signs are variables. The purpose of this option is to preserve the consistency of SQL statements within the document. The property has the following function: 1. This may po- tentially lead to inconsistencies in SQL syntax stored in the document.
The SqlMode property is defined in two locations: globally and at document scope. Every document upon its creation copies the value of the global property into the property defined for the document. The property value defined at document scope always has higher pri- ority over the one defined globally. Leave this textfield blank to use the default Workbench dump tool. You can also add colors if you wish. Changes made here affect the drop down list box of colors that appears on the toolbar when adding objects to an EER diagram canvas.
For a discussion of using this list box see Section 7. Before working directly with a live server a connection must be created. Once a connection is established it is the possible to execute SQL code directly on the server and manipu- late the server using SQL code.
Open Connection to start Querying 2. Open Connection to start Querying icon 3. New Connection 4. Edit Table Data 5. Edit SQL Script 6. From this wizard you can select a predefined connection. Open Connection to start Querying icon If you already have created a connection to a database it will appear in this panel as an icon. Double clicking the icon will directly launch a SQL Editor tab, and connect you to the database as defined by the connection. This wizard allows you to create a new con- nection.
Note the wizard when launched from here does not display existing connections, it only allows you to create a new connection. To read more about creating and managing connections see Section 6. Edit Table Data This action item allows you to edit table data.
When clicked the Edit Table Data wizard is launched. This is a two stage wizard. The first stage allows you to select a Stored Connection. The second stage allows you to select the Schema and Table you want to edit. Once the wizard is completed a SQL Editor tab is launched which displays a data grid that allows you to interactively edit table data as required. The second stage allows you to select a SQL Script file, and optionally have the script executed after it is opened. Once the wizard is completed a SQL Editor tab will be launched, with the script displayed.
If you optionally selected to run the script, the script will run and the results will be displayed. This wizard also displays Stored Connections, which can be se- lected to change as required. New connections can also be created from this wizard. To read more about managing connections see Section 6.
Creating and managing connections. This functionality is primarily managed through the Manage DB Connections dialog. Editing, running, and manipulating databases through SQL code. This functionality is associated with what is termed the SQL Edit- or. Each of these is described in more detail in the following sections. The con- nections created can then be used from the wizards that need to connect to a server, for example the wizard used to reverse engineer a live database.
However, it is still possible to set connection parameters from these wizards if required, without invoking the Manage DB Connections dialog directly. It can also be in- voked from any of the wizards requiring access to a live database. Once the Manage DB Connections dialog is launched, you are presented with a dialog that allows you to create or delete connections: Figure 6.
This connection can then be selected from a dropdown listbox in other wizards requiring a connection. More details of these options and paramaters are avalable in the following sections. Once you are satisfied that the connection works as expected you can then close the wizard by clicking the CLOSE button. You can then use the stored connection from any of the wizards requiring connection to a live server. If you do not enter a password here you will be prompted to enter the pass- word for the account to be used when MySQL Workbench attempts to establish the connection.
This corresponds to starting a MySQL command-line tool with the --compress option. The client library needs to support this option. Note: this feature is currently not supported. With this option enabled, you cannot use double quotes to quote literal strings, because it is interpreted as an identifier. Note: if this option is selected, it overrides the server setting.
The name of the socket or pipe is entered here. If the textfield is left blank the default socket or pipe name is used. Ths option can be seen in the following screenshot: Figure 6. This option was discussed in Section 6. An optional port number can also be provided. It is recommended that an SSH key file is also used. Note, only key files in OpenSSH format are currently supported.
These are shown in the following screenshot: Figure 6. At this point you will be asked to select either a stored connection or enter the details for a new connection. Toolbar The toolbar features ten buttons, as shown in the following screenshot: Figure 6.
Results are displayed in one or more Results tabs. This restarts the connection to the database server. If the button is depressed so that the green arrow is displayed, then execution will continue past the failed code, possibly generating additional result sets. Any error generated from attempting to execute the faulty statement will be recorded in either case in the Output tabsheet. For example, if a SQL script creates a new table, it will not appear in the Overview tab until the refresh tool- bar button is pressed.
If this toggle button is pressed, so that the pin appears inserted, results will be retained between executions. Each execution of the script will create a new Results tab containing the result set. The statements entered can be saved to a file for later use. At any point you can also execute the statements you have entered. Figure 6. Simply double-click the item in the Schemata Palette and the name of the item clicked will be inserted into the SQL Statements panel.
Live Schema Overview Tabsheet This tabsheet provides an overview of the schema. The schema objects Tables, Views and Routines are displayed for the current schema. Output Tabsheet The Output tabsheet displays a summary of the communication between the script and the server. The messages displayed can be in- formation or errors.
Each message displays the time, the action that was carried out, and the response from the server. This is useful for troubleshooting scripts. At the time of saving you will be asked to specify a name. Results Tabsheets The results area of the screen shows the results from any queries that have been executed. If the script contains multiple queries then multiple result tabs will be generated, one for each query that returns results. The controls from left to right are: 1. Move to first row - Highlights the first record in the current result set.
Move to previous row - Highlights the previous record. Move to next row - Highlights the next record. Move to last row - Highlights the last record in the current result set. Toggle wrapping of cell contents - The data in the cell can either be truncated or wrapped. This button allows you to toggle between these options.
Sort Ascending - Sorts selected column in ascending order. Sort Descending - Sorts column in descending order. Refresh Data from Data Source - Refreshes the current result set from the data source. Search for substring within data - search data for the string entered in the search box.
In the Overview tab, if a table is double-clicked, a live editing tab will be launched, allowing you to edit the data maintained in that table. Field data can be edited by clicking on a field and entering the required data, or editing existing data. In addition to the controls offered by the Results tabsheet, the Live Editor tab features some addi- tional controls.
Edit current row - enters edit mode for the currently selected record. Insert new row - inserts a new row and allows you to enter data. Delete selected rows - Removes the selected rows. Apply changes to data - Applies any changes that may have been made to the data fields to the live server. Discard changes to data - Discards any changes that may have been made to the data fields, and does not apply them to the live server.
These additional controls allow you to apply or discard any changes you may have made to the field data. If changes are applied, the data will then be synchronized with the live server. If changes are discarded the live server will not be affected. Note It is possible to enter a function, or other expression, into a field. This will ensure that the quoting is not escaped.
See also Section 7. Sidebar The Sidebar contains several panels. Connection Information Panel This section provides a summary of the current connection to the server. Object Browser The Object Browser contains a drop down listbox and a schemata explorer control. Default Schema Listbox The drop down listbox lists the schema that are available on the currently connected server.
It is possible to select a schema to become the currently active schema using this facility. Once set, subsequent statements without schema qualifiers will be executed against this de- fault schema. Note that this will only be set for the query session.
If you wish to set a default schema for multiple MySQL Workbench sessions, you will need to set the default schema for the stored connection. Double-clicking views, tables, and column names in the schemata explorer will insert the corresponding name into the SQL Statements area. This reduces typing significantly when entering SQL statements containing several tables, columns or views.
The Object Browser also features a context menu which can be displayed by right-clicking on, for example, a table. Data can be saved directly to the live server. All data will be lost if this operation is carried out. This is not an exhaustive list. These, and additional data modeling capablities, are discussed in the following sections.
The Home screen is the typical starting point for work with data modeling. In the Data Modeling section of the Workspace you can use the action items there to create and manage models, forward and reverse engineer, and compare and synchronize schemata.
These action items are listed below: 1. Create new EER Model 4. Open an Existing EER Model icon If you have already created one or more model files you can simply double-click the item of the model you wish to load. Clicking this action item launches the Reverse Engineer Database. This is a multi-stage wizard that allows you to select a connection to a live server, and select the schema and objects you wish to reverse engineer into your new model.
This is a convenient way to see how an existing database is structured. For further information on reverse engineering see Section 7. Such a script may have been created by hand or may be as a result of reverse engineering an existing database to generate the script, which may then be modified according to re- quirements.
This is a multi-stage wizard that allows you to select the script you want to create your model from. For further information see Section 7. Modeling Menus Some menu options are not available in the OSS version of this application, and are only available in the Standard Edition. This is indic- ated where applicable. The File Menu Use this menu item to open a project, begin a new project, or save a project.
The keyboard command to create a new project is Ctrl N and the command to open an existing project is Ctrl O. You can also do this from the key- board by pressing Ctrl W. When you save a model its name appears in the title bar of the application. If you have made changes to a project and have not saved those changes, an asterisk appears in the title bar following the model name.
If the script creates a database, a new tab bearing the database name is added to the Physical Schemata sec- tion of the MySQL Model page. If the script contains data, it will be ignored. Importing a DDL script is discussed in detail in Sec- tion 7. Under the Import menu option you can also import DBDesigner4 files.
You may generate the SQL statements necessary to create a new database or alter an existing one. These menu items are discussed in detail in Section 7. For an example of a PNG file see Figure 7. You have the choice of printing your model directly to your printer, printing it as a PDF file, or creating a PostScript file. For more information see Section 7. The Edit Menu Under this menu item find the options for cutting, copying, and pasting. The Ctrl Z key combination can also be used to undo an operation.
The keyboard command for this action is Ctrl Delete. You can also right click an object and choose the delete option from the pop-up menu. For instance, if an EER DIAGRAM is active and a table on the canvas is the currently selected object, a dialog box may open asking whether you want to remove the table from the canvas only or from the database as well.
Warning If the MySQL Model page is active, the selected object will be deleted from the catalog and there will be no confirmation dialog box. Selecting items changes some of the EDIT menu options. If more than one object is selected, these menu items show the number of objects selected. You can look for objects in the current view. This is currently only for use with the SQL Editor, to allow you to quickly search and replace script code items. This feature only works for EER diagrams.
If you wish, you may undock this window as you would any other. Use this window to navigate to objects. For example, double clicking the Description of an object located on an EER diagram nav- igates to the specific diagram and selects the object. Notice that the properties of the object are displayed in the Properties palette. The Find dialog window can also be opened using the Ctrl F key combination.
Close the Find dialog window by clicking the X in the top right corner or by pressing the Esc key. For further information see Section 5. The keyboard shortcut for this menu item is Ctrl F2. The ability to zoom in on an EER diagram is also available using the slider tool in the Model Navigator palette. See Sec- tion 7. From the keyboard select the object you wish to bookmark and use the key combination Ctrl Shift and the number of the marker 1 through 9.
You may create up to nine markers. From the keyboard use the Ctrl key and the number of the marker. For example, if a table has a long column name that is not fully displayed, using this menu option will expand the table making the column visible. This menu item is not enabled until an ob- ject is selected. This option will display a table's columns if the object notation supports expansion.
Some object notations, such as Classic, do not allow for expansion or contraction. The keyboard shortcut is Ctrl T. Commercial version only. Use this dialog box to adjust the width or height of the canvas. The unit of measure is pages; the default value is two. When you have tables with numerous columns, use this menu option to increase the size of the EER. These options should not be confused with the options that are set globally for the Workbench application, and which are now referred to as Workbench Preferences.
The available model options are a subset of the Workbench Preferences options. For more information on Workbench Preferences see Section 5. Use this dialog window to set the options for creating documentation of your database models. They are grayed out if an EER diagram tab is not selected. The object notation style that you choose persists for the duration of your MySQL Workbench session and is saved along with your model.
Note If you plan to export or print an EER diagram be sure to decide on a notation style first. Changing notation styles after ob- jects have been placed on a diagram can significantly change the appearance of the diagram. For an example see Figure 7. For more in- formation see Section 6. For more information see Section 6.
For more information, see Section 7. Section 7. For more information about this menu option see Chapter 10, Plugins. Read, search, or print the documentation from this window. This option is especially useful for determining your rendering mode. Sample output follows. Other tools appear on the toolbar depending upon the context. Tool-specific Toolbar Items The toolbar also changes depending upon which tool from the vertical toolbar is active.
These tools are discussed in Section 7. If the Table tool is active, drop down list boxes of schemata, engine types and collations appear on the toolbar. The table properties can then be modified using the Properties Editor. When an object is selected the object's properties, such as color, can be changed in the Properties Editor. The Sidebar is located on the left by default, but can be relocated to the right using a setting in the Workbench Preferences dialog.
Figure 7. You may also rename, edit, cut, copy, or delete objects on this page by right clicking. Doing this opens a pop-up menu. When you add an EER diagram a new tab appears below the toolbar. Use this tab to navigate to the newly created EER diagram. EER Diagrams are discussed in depth in Section 7. When the Physical Schemata section is expanded, all the schemata that are currently loaded are displayed. Each schema shows as a tab; a specific schema is selected by clicking its tab.
There are a variety of ways to add schema to the Physical Schemata panel. To the left of these buttons are three buttons that control the way database object icons are displayed. The left-most button displays database objects as large icons, the next button to the right dis- plays small icons in multiple rows, and the last button displays small icons in a single list.
To expand the Physical Schemata window move the mouse pointer anywhere over the gray area that defines the lower edge of the Physical Schemata panel. Hold down the right mouse button and move the mouse to adjust the size of the window. Any objects added to the Physical Schemata show up in the Catalog palette docked on the right side of the application. For information about adding objects to an EER diagram canvas see Section 7. Schema Privileges The Privileges panel of the MySQL Model page is used to create users for your schemata and also to define roles — making it much easier to assign the same rights to different users or different rights to different users.
Adding Roles To add a role double click the Add Role icon. Doing this creates a role with the default name role1. All roles that have been defined are listed under Roles on the left side of the role editor. Double clicking a role object opens the role editor docked at the bottom of the screen. You may drag and drop objects from the Physical Schemata or from the Catalog panel to the Objects section of the role editor. To assign privileges to a role select a role from the Roles section and then select an object in the Objects section.
In the Privileges section check the rights you wish to assign to this role. Creating roles can make the process of assigning rights to new users much easier. Adding Users To add a user double click the Add User icon. Doing this creates a user with the default name user1. Double clicking this user opens the user editor docked at the bottom of the application.
Roles may be revoked by moving them in the opposite direction. Right clicking a user opens a pop-up menu. These options function as described in Section 7. For more inform- ation, see Section 7. Use the Model Notes panel to write project notes. Any scripts or notes added will be saved with your project. This palette gives you an overview of the objects placed on an EER diagram canvas and for this reason it is most useful when an EER diagram is active.
Any objects that you have placed on the canvas should be visible in the navigator. A black rectangular outline indicates the view port onto the visible area of the canvas. To change the view port of an EER diagram left click this black outline and drag it to the desired location. You can zoom in on selected areas of an EER diagram by using the slider tool at the bottom of this window.
The dimensions of the view port change as you zoom in and out. If the slider tool has the focus you can also zoom using the arrow keys. The default size of the Model Navigator is two pages. The Model Navigator Palette 7. The Catalog and Layers Palettes By default these two palettes are docked on the right, in the middle of the application. Selecting an object in this palette, displays its properties in the Properties palette. This palette is principally used to drag and drop objects onto an EER diagram canvas.
You can autohide this window by clicking the push pin icon on the title bar. Doing this displays a vertical tab on the right side of the ap- plication. Mouse over this tab to view its contents. Autohiding a window when it is a tabbed window, autohides all the tabbed windows at that location.
If a layer or figure is currently selected, an X ap- pears beside the name of the object and its properties are displayed in the Properties palette. This can be especially useful in de- termining which objects are selected when you have selected multiple objects using the various options under the SELECT menu option. For more information on this topic see Section 7. Selecting an object in the Layers palette also adjusts the view port to the area of the canvas where the object is located.
To do this, select the object and, in the Proper- ties palette, set the visible property to False. The Layer palette provides an easy way to locate an invisible object. Open the Layers palette and select the object by double click- ing it. Once an object is selected you can reset the visible property from the Properties palette. The Properties and History Palettes By default these two palettes are docked on the right, at the bottom of the application. You can select one or the other by clicking the tab at the bottom of this palette.
It is especially useful for editing dis- play objects such as layers and notes. Primary key is also used as reference by other tables. Let's fill up our " products " table with rows. Take note that strings must be enclosed with a pair of single quotes or double quotes. The most common, important and complex task is to query a database for a subset of data that meets your needs - with the SELECT command.
The ordering of string depends on the so-called collation chosen. You can perform arithmetic operations on numeric fields using arithmetic operators, as tabulated below:. You can also invert a condition using operator NOT. For examples,. NULL is a special value, which represent "no value", "missing value" or "unknown value". If several rows have the same value in columnA , it will be ordered according to columnB , and so on.
For strings, the ordering could be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on the so-called character collating sequence used. To continue to the following records , you could specify the number of rows to be skipped, followed by the number of rows to be displayed in the LIMIT clause, as follows:. You could use the keyword AS to define an alias for an identifier such as column name, table name.
The alias will be used in displaying the name. It can also be used as reference. Take note that the identifier " Unit Price " contains a blank and must be back-quoted. You can also concatenate a few columns as one e. The file extension of ". Our example so far involves only one table " products ". A practical database contains many related tables. Products have suppliers. If each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies only one product known as one-to-one relationship , we can simply add the supplier's data name, address, phone number into the products table.
Suppose that each product has one supplier, and a supplier may supply zero or more products known as one-to-many relationship. Putting the supplier's data into the products table results in duplication of data. This is because one supplier may supply many products, hence, the same supplier's data appear in many rows.
This not only wastes the storage but also easily leads to inconsistency as all duplicate data must be updated simultaneously. The situation is even more complicated if one product has many suppliers, and each supplier can supply many products, in a many-to-many relationship. Suppose that each product has one supplier, and each supplier supplies one or more products. We could create a table called suppliers to store suppliers' data e. We create a column with unique value called supplierID to identify every suppliers.
We set supplierID as the primary key for the table suppliers to ensure uniqueness and facilitate fast search. To relate the suppliers table to the products table, we add a new column into the products table - the supplierID. We then set the supplierID column of the products table as a foreign key references the supplierID column of the suppliers table to ensure the so-called referential integrity. We need to first create the suppliers table, because the products table references the suppliers table.
The suppliers table is known as the parent table; while the products table is known as the child table in this relationship. Next, we shall add a foreign key constraint on the supplierID columns of the products child table to the suppliers parent table, to ensure that every supplierID in the products table always refers to a valid supplierID in the suppliers table - this is called referential integrity. For example, to list the product's name in products table and supplier's name in suppliers table , we could join the two table via the two common supplierID columns:.
In the above query result, two of the columns have the same heading " name ". We could create aliases for heading s. The database diagram is as illustrated. The link indicates a one-to-many relationship between products and suppliers. Suppose that a product has many suppliers; and a supplier supplies many products in a so-called many-to-many relationship.
The above solution breaks. You cannot include the supplierID in the products table, as you cannot determine the number of suppliers, and hence, the number of columns needed for the supplierID s. Similarly, you cannot include the productID in the suppliers table, as you cannot determine the number of products. To resolve this problem, you need to create a new table, known as a junction table or joint table , to provide the linkage. The primary key of the table consists of two columns: productID and supplierID , as their combination uniquely identifies each rows.
This primary key is defined to ensure uniqueness. Two foreign keys are defined to set the constraint to the two parent tables. Next, remove the supplierID column from the products table. This column was added to establish the one-to-many relationship. It is no longer needed in the many-to-many relationship. Before this column can be removed, you need to remove the foreign key that builds on this column.
To remove a key in MySQL, you need to know its constraint name, which was generated by the system. The database diagram is as follows. Both products and suppliers tables exhibit a one-to-many relationship to the junction table. The many-to-many relationship is supported via the junction table.
Suppose that some products have optional data e. Backup: Before we conclude this example, let's run the mysqldump utility program to dump out backup the entire southwind database. You can restore from the backup by running the script either:. In the relational model, a table shall not contain duplicate rows, because that would create ambiguity in retrieval.
To ensure uniqueness, each table should have a column or a set of columns , called primary key , that uniquely identifies every record of the table. For example, an unique number customerID can be used as the primary key for the customers table; productCode for products table; isbn for books table.
A primary key is called a simple key if it is a single column; it is called a composite key if it is made up of several columns. The primary key is often used to relate to other tables. A foreign key of a child table is used to reference the parent table. Foreign key constraint can be imposed to ensure so-called referential integrity - values in the child table must be valid values in the parent table. We define the foreign key when defining the child table, which references a parent table, as follows:.
Indexes or Keys can be created on selected column s to facilitate fast search. If productID column is indexed e. The drawback about indexing is cost and space. Building and maintaining indexes require computations and memory spaces. Nevertheless, relational databases are typically optimized for queries and retrievals, but NOT for updates. There can be more than one indexes in a table. Index are automatically built on the primary-key column s. Results of one query can be used in another SQL statement.
Subquery is useful if more than one tables are involved. In the previous many-to-many product sales example, how to find the suppliers that do not supply any product? A subquery may return a scalar, a single column, a single row, or a table. You can use comparison operator e. Date and time are of particular interest for database applications. Let's begin with Date without Time with the following example. Take note that date value must be written as a string in the format of 'yyyy-mm-dd' , e.
MySQL provides these built-in functions for getting the current date, time and datetime:. MySQL will issue a warning and insert all zeros e. A view is a virtual table that contains no physical data. It provide an alternative way to look at the data. Transaction is important to ensure that there is no partial update to the database, given an atomic of SQL statements.
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Guess this one does not need more explanation. If not, you can also get the latest version of phpMyAdmin from their official website. Please do take note that phpMyAdmin is ultimately still limited by the upload limit set in the php. Alternatively, you can change the limits in php. Well, everyone has their own preferences — Some prefer to not install anything and just push SQL files in the command line, while a few like to use the Workbench to manage multiple databases at the same time.
All the 3 methods work fine, just test it out yourself and stick with the one you are most comfortable with. Before you go trigger happy with importing SQL files, you might want to check what is inside it first. It will be a painful experience to lose all your work or even data. Plus, yes, it is an irreversible process… So always remember to backup before doing anything of a large scale.
Thank you for reading, and we have come to the end of this guide. I hope that it has helped you in your project, and if you want to share anything with this guide, please feel free to comment below. Good luck and happy coding! Select File and New Model from the top menu. Specify the SQL file needing a diagram. At this point, you can rearrange and connect tables using the options on the left. Reverse engineer an existing database In your database model diagram, on the Database tab, click Reverse Engineer.
On the first screen of the Reverse Engineer Wizard, do the following: Select the check boxes for the type of information that you want to extract, and then click Next. Enter password if required, then click OK. The wizard will connect to the DBMS, fetch a list of databases, and check for any issues. Forward engineering enables you to create a script of your database model. You may export a script to alter an existing database or create a new database.
Use the sed command on your bash shell to separate the data of the table that you want to restore. MySQL Workbench provides an easy to use interface for performing the many tasks involved when working with databases. It integrates SQL development, administration, database design, creation and maintenance into one visual integrated development environment. Click Server on the main tool bar. Select Data Export.
Select the tables you want to back up. Under Export Options, select where you want your dump saved. Click Start Export. You now have a backup version of your site. Step 1: Identify your data. Step 3: Create a database. Step 4: Create a table. MySQL Workbench allows you to make a backup of a single database table using the visual editor. To do this, go to the Server Administration, open the database and select the Data Dump.
Click on your database and select a table from the list that you want to back up. How do I import a. Category: technology and computing databases. Select Import from Self-Contained File. Click … and locate your. Under Default Target Schema select the database where you want this import to go.
Click Start Import. To copy a MySQL database, you need to follow these steps:. Here are the steps:. What is a MWB file? Create a Diagram from a SQL file. How do I reverse engineer a SQL database? Reverse engineer an existing database. In your database model diagram, on the Database tab, click Reverse Engineer. What is forward engineering in MySQL workbench? What is MySQL workbench used for?
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|Mysql workbench 6.2 import sql file||Values of the primary-key column must be unique. Before this column can be removed, you need to remove the foreign key that builds on this column. The following sections explain the installation process for each of these platforms. The -grtversion can be used to display the GRT shell version number. The file is named mysql-workbench-oss-ver- sion-osx|
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